SMOKE input data consist of emissions inventories, temporal
and chemical speciation profiles, spatial surrogates, gridded
meteorology and land use data, and other ancillary files for
specifying the timing, location, and chemical nature of emissions.
SMOKE is distributed with example data for getting started
with the model. The example files distributed with SMOKE
are for demonstration purposes only, they are not meant for
real-world modeling applications.
The primary source for non-meteorology SMOKE input data is
the U.S. EPA Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emissions Factors
The U.S. EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
(OAQPS) Emissions Inventory and Analysis Group (EIAG)
provides SMOKE inputs for different rule-making modeling
platforms. These platforms
include not only the NEI for both criteria
air pollutants (CAPs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs),
but also all of the SMOKE ancillary data files created by
EPA for use in SMOKE. EPA uses CHIEF to provide
Meteorology data must be generated for specific SMOKE applications
using either MM5,
WRF, or a
similar model. The output data from meteorology models must
be formatted for SMOKE using a program like MCIP.
History of SMOKE
The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) Modeling System
was originally developed at MCNC
to integrate emissions data processing with high-performance computing
(HPC) sparse-matrix algorithms. SMOKE is now under active development
at the Institute for the Environment and is partially supported by the Community
Modeling and Analysis System (CMAS).
SMOKE is primarily an emissions processing system designed to create
gridded, speciated, hourly emissions for input into a variety of
air quality models such as CMAQ, REMSAD, CAMX and UAM. SMOKE supports
area, biogenic, mobile (both onroad and nonroad), and point source
emissions processing for criteria, particulate, and toxic pollutants.
For biogenic emissions modeling, SMOKE uses the Biogenic
Emission Inventory System, version 2.5 (BEIS2) and version 3.09
and 3.14 (BEIS3). SMOKE is also integrated with the on-road emissions
model MOBILE6 and
The sparse matrix approach used throughout SMOKE permits rapid
and flexible processing of emissions data. Rapid processing is possible
because SMOKE uses a series of matrix calculations rather than a
less-efficient sequential approach used by previous systems. Flexible
processing comes from splitting the processing steps of inventory
growth, controls, chemical speciation, temporal allocation, and
spatial allocation into independent steps whenever possible. The
results from these steps are merged together in the final stage
of processing using vector-matrix multiplication. This means that
individual steps (such as adding a new control strategy, or processing
for a different grid) can be performed and merged without having
to redo all of the other processing steps.
SMOKE is written in Fortran 90 and is designed to run on a variety
of UNIX platforms. We currently provide executables for Linux and
the source code is available for download and can easily be compiled
for your particular system. We do not support running SMOKE on Windows,
due to the inherent limitations of that system. The current version
of SMOKE is version 2.5, although versions 1.5 - 2.4 are
still available for download.
The original SMOKE concept was envisioned in the early 1990's at
MCNC by Dr. Carlie Coats, now of Baron Advanced Meteorology Services.
Marc Houyoux managed the development of SMOKE until his departure
to the U.S. EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards in
2002. With active-development continuing at the CEMPD, lead SMOKE
development was passed from Catherine Seppanen to Dr. B.H. Baek
in 2005. While some SMOKE development is occurring outside of CEMPD,
the primary line of development is managed by Dr. Baek under funding
from the U.S. EPA.